During Sultan Hashim’s reign (Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin was the 26th Sultan of Brunei, he ruled Brunei from May 1885 to May 1906) two important agreements were made between Brunei and Britain. The Treaty of Protection of 1888 made Brunei a British Protectorate.
In the 1880s, the Bruneian Empire was declining. The Sultan granted land (now Sarawak) to James Brooke, who had helped him quell a rebellion and allowed him to establish the Kingdom of Sarawak. Over time, Brooke and his nephews (who succeeded him) leased or annexed more land. Brunei lost much of its territory to him and his dynasty, known as the White Rajahs.
Sultan Hashim appealed to the British to stop further encroachment by the Brookes. The “Treaty of Protection” was negotiated by Sir Hugh Low and signed into effect on 17 September 1888.
Soon after, Sultan Hashim felt that the British were not really protecting Brunei. He sought help from Sultan Abdul Hamid of Turkey. The British discovered this and decided to send Malcolm McArthur to solve the problems in Brunei. Therefore, the Supplementary Agreement of 1905/1906 was signed. Under this treaty, Brunei accepted a British Resident to advise the Sultan on both external and internal affairs except those relating to Islam and Malay customs.
Brunei regained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984.